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Historical Timeline of Southeast Asia

The history of Southeast Asia has 5 key periods from the Prehistoric, Early Kingdoms, Medieval, European Colonisation and Post War Decolonisation Period to the Post War Decolonisation Period.

Periods :

Early Kingdoms Period

Regions :

Prehistoric Period

Location:
Travel Information:

Paleolithic sites

The main sites are in Java (Sangiran, Java Man) and East Malaysia (Niah cave). The oldest habitation is in Philipines Palawan (Tabon Cave).

Neolithic sites



Early agricultural societies sites



Bronze age

The earliest known copper and bronze main site is in Northeast Thailand (Ban Chiang) and Northern Vietnam (Phung Nguyen). Sahuynh culture (south central coast of Vietnam) and Buni culture (coastal north western Java) also exist and they produced pottery.

Indonesia Java Island

Location: Southeast Asia
Travel Information:

The main influence in this period are the Austronesian martime trade network, Indianised Kingdoms and the spread of Buddhism in the region.



The main Kingdoms are the Singhasari Kingdom based in Java that lasted between 1222 to 1292.

Prior to the founding of the Singhasari Kingdom, there were many Kingdoms that existed.

Buni Culture (400BC-500AD) existed in western Java and is a prehistoric clay pottery culture. Salakanagara is the first Indianised Kingdom in western Java (130-362). Both preceded the Tarumanagara Kingdom.

Tarumanagara (358-669) existed in western Java and is an early Sundanese Indianised Kingdom. Part of the ruler family founded Galuh Kingdom (669-1482) which later became part of Sunda Kingdom.

kalingga Kingdom (6-7 century) was one of the first Hundu Buddhist Kingdoms in Central Java. The Sunda Kingdom (669-1579) was based in western part of Java island which fall to the Sultanate of Banten in 1579.

The Medang Kingdom (732-1017) was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty which was destroyed by the Srivijaya Empire in 1017.The Borobudur and the Prambanan temples were built by the Kingdom.

The Kahuripan Kingdom was Java based Hindu-Buddhist Kingdom founded in 1019. It was splited into 2 Kingdoms when the only Raja Airlangga divided the Kingdom for his 2 sons in 1045.

The Kingdom of Janggala (1045-1136) ceased in 1136 when the Raja of Kediri married a princess of the Kediri Kingdom (1045-1222). The last King of Kediri was forced to surrender his throne in 1222 to the Kingdom of Singhasari after the Battle of Ganter.

The Mongol naval invasion ended the Singhasari Kingdom and give rise to the Majapahit Empire.

The Majapahit Empire lasted from 1293 to 1527. It was the last Hindu empire in the region and one of the largest empire to exist in Southeast Asia with terrorities including present day Singapore, Inonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, southern Phillipines.



The Demak Sultanate in Java and Bali Kingdom succeeded the Majaphit Empire. They were the first Islamic sultanate in Java. This Kingdom was succeeded by the Kingdom of Pajang (1568-1586) and followed by the greatest Islamic Mataram Sultanate. They were also the last independent Kingdom before the Dutch colonisation.
Majaphit Empire (1293-1527)

Sultanate of Demak (1475-1554)

Kingdom of Pajang (1568-1586)

Mataram Sultanate (1586-1749)





Indonesia Sumatra Island

Location:
Travel Information:

Kantoli

An ancient Kingdom between Jambi and Palembang that existed around the 5th century.

Srivijaya Empire (630-1377)

Samudera Pasai Sultanate (1267-1521)

The Sultanate is based in Northern Sumatra.

Riau-Linngga Sultanate (1824-1911)

The Sultanate was the result of partition of Johor-Riau Sultanate in 1824. It ended when they were annexed by the Dutch.

Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura (1723-1949)

The Sultanate was based in Siak Regency. It was founded by Raja Kecik who failed ot seize the throne of the Johor Sultanate. The last sultan joined the Republic of Indonesia in 1945.

Indonesia Lesser Sunda Islands

Location: Southeast Asia
Travel Information:

Bali Kingdom (914-1908)



Bima Sultanate (1620-1958)

Indonesia Sulawesi Island

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Kingdom of Banggai ( - )

a Kingdom in Central Sulawesi.

Kingdom of Bone ( - )

Kingdom of Luwu ( - )

Kingdom of Wajo ( -1856)

Kingdom of Tallo (15 century-1856)

One of two Kingdoms in South Sulewesi which after both kingdoms went throught Islamization in the 17th century was known as the Makassar Kingdom.

Sultanate of Gowa (14century-1945)

The Sultanate is based in Southern Sulawesi.

Indonesia Maluku Island

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Sultanate of Ternate (1257-1914)

Together with Tidore, Jailolo and Bacan Kingdoms, the Sultanate of Ternate are the oldest Muslim Kingdoms in Indoneisa. Sultanate of Ternate is based in North Maluku and a major producer of cloves. The cloves was a major source of wealth and attracted the western powers to the region. The Sultanate of Ternate was annexed by the Dutch in 1914.

Sultanate of Tidore (1450-1967)

The Sultanate gained wealth from the spice trade. The Sultanate ended when the last Sultan died in 1967 and no new sultan was appointed.

Singapore and Malaysia

Location: Southeast Asia
Travel Information:

Kingdom of Singapura (1299-1398)

The Kingdom of Singaura was founded by a Srivijayan Prince Sang Nila Utama. The Kingdom ended when it was attacked by the Majapahit naval attack. The rulers fleed to Malacca and found the Malacca Sultanate.

The Keramat Iskandar Shah at Fort Canning, Singapore, is the symoblic tomb of Sultan Iskandar Shah who fleed to Malacca.

Malay Sultanate of Malacca (1400-1511)

The rulers fleed to Malacca and found the Malacca Sultanate. The invasion by the Portuguese Empire in 1511 ended the Malacca Sultanate and the sons of the King founded the Perak and Johor Sultanate that last till present day.

Malay Sultanate of Perak (1528-present)

The invasion by the Portuguese Empire in 1511 ended the Malacca Sultanate and the sons of the King founded the Perak and Johor Sultanate that last till present day.

Malay Sultanate of Johor (1528-present)

The invasion by the Portuguese Empire in 1511 ended the Malacca Sultanate and the sons of the King founded the Perak and Johor Sultanate that last till present day.

Malay Sultanate of Kedah (1136-present)



Malay Sultanate of Kelantan (1267-present)



Malay Sultanate of Selangor (1766-present)



Malay Old Sultanate of Pahang (1470-1623)

Malay Sultanate of Pahang (1881-present)



Malay Trengganu Royal Family (1725-present)



Malay Perak Royal Family (1843-present)



European Colonisation Period

Location:
Travel Information:

1521, Magellan's Marker, Lapu-Lapu City, Mactan Island, Philippines

The Magellan's Marker was built in 1866 on the site where Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed by Mactan chief Lapu-Lapu in the Battle of Mactan in 1521.

Fort Santiago, Philippines

Old Spanish Colonial Buildings, Manila, Philippines

Christ Church, Malacca


A chruch built by the Dutch in 1753 and one of the World Heritage site in the city.


29 January 1819, Raffles Landing Site, Singapore

This is the spot Sir Stamford Raffles is believed to have landed on 29 January 1819.

15th Feb 1942, British Surrendered Singapore to Japan, Singapore

Ford Factory, Singapore was the site where Britain surrendered Singapore to Japanese troops on 15th Feb 1942.

12 September 1945, Former City Hall, Singapore

WWII Japanese surrender ceremony was held and Japanese General Itagaki surrendered Japanese troops in Southeast Asia to Lord Mountbatten here.

Post War Decolonisation Period

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4 July 1946, Philippines Independence from the United States of America

Philippines Independence from the United States of America was declared at Rizal Park on 4 July 1946. The 105m tall flagpole is one of the tallest in the Philipines.

31 August 1957, Malaysia's independance from Britain

Malaysia's independance from Britain was declared at Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumper, on 31 August 1957. The 100m tall flagpole is one of the tallest in the world.

31 August 1963, Singapore's independance from Britain

Singapore's then Prime Minister Mr Lee Kuan Yew declared self-governance at the City Hall on 31 Auguest in 1959 and read the Malaysia Proclamation on 31 August 1963 to join the Federation of Malaysia, ending the British colonial rule of Singapore since 1819..

9 August 1965, Singapore's independance from Malaysia

Singapore's then Prime Minister Mr Lee Kuan Yew signed the Proclamation of Singapore. Singapore become an independent and sovereign state on 7 August 1965. The former City Hall was the location where Singapore's national anthem was first played and the national flag was first displayed. The Singapore's first National Day Parade was also held here in 1966.

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